Melt the butter in a skillet over medium heat. Add the ground beef to the skillet and cook, breaking the beef apart with a spatula, until the beef has browned. Add the salt, pepper, garlic salt, and tomato sauce and simmer for 5 minutes.
In a mixing bowl, combine the cottage cheese, sour cream, onions, and noodles.
In a 2-quart casserole dish, create alternating layers of the noodle mixture and the meat mixture, beginning with the noodles and ending with the meat. Top with the shredded cheddar cheese.